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五彩八仙人物故事图

五彩八仙人物故事图

清代五彩瓷器在明代五彩的基础上,又有了新的发展。在器型、纹饰、用彩方面都发生了很大变化,以顺治、康熙五彩具有代表性。

On the basis of Ming Dynasty's multicolored porcelain, there was a new development. Great changes have taken place in the types, patterns and colors of utensils. The five colors of Shunzhi and Kangxi are representative.

顺治五彩在明代五彩的基础上又有所发展,可以明显看出从明代向清代过度的风格。五彩瓷器与同时期的青花瓷器在造型、纹饰上有许多相似之处。器型有罐、瓶、蒜头瓶、花觚,盘等。纹饰以花卉题材为主,双犄牡丹比较常见。除花卉纹以外,还有人物、动物等纹饰。动物纹比例较大,多占满器物的整个空间。顺治到康熙早期,常见用红彩在花纹以外的地子上画出各种锦地纹饰,是这时期五彩瓷器装饰的特点,口部多饰酱色也是顺治五彩瓷器的特点。

On the basis of Ming Dynasty's five colors, Shunzhi's five colors have developed, which can be clearly seen from the Ming Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty. There are many similarities between multicolored porcelain and blue and white porcelain of the same period in shape and decoration. There are jar, bottle, garlic bottle, goblet, plate and so on. Flower motif is the main theme of ornamentation, and double horn peony is more common. In addition to flower patterns, there are figures, animals and other decorative patterns. The proportion of animal patterns is relatively large, and most of them occupy the whole space of objects. From Shunzhi to the early Kangxi period, it was common to use red color to draw various kinds of brocade patterns on the ground outside the pattern, which was the characteristic of the multicolored porcelain decoration in this period, and the mouth was decorated with soy color.

康熙五彩在明代及清代顺治五彩的基础上又有较大的发展。首先体现在烧造数量多,胎釉质地坚硬,器型种类丰富,纹饰题材广泛。在用彩上有新的变化:釉上蓝彩代替釉下蓝彩,蓝色更加艳丽;增加了黑彩,黑彩色黑如漆,有光亮感;还增加了金彩,使五彩显得更加富丽堂皇。康熙五彩除了新增加的几种彩之外,在用彩上色调对比强烈,红绿对比分明,可以分为深浅不同色阶,其中有的使用绿彩较多,有的使用红彩为主,有些又以墨彩为主。有的以金彩为主,因此形成多种不同风格,变化较多。

Kangxi's five colors had a great development on the basis of the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty Shunzhi five colors. First of all, it is reflected in the large quantity of firing, the hard enamel of the fetus, the rich types of utensils and the wide range of decorative subjects. There are new changes in the use of color: overglaze blue color instead of underglaze blue color, blue is more gorgeous; black color is added, black

color is as black as paint, with a sense of brightness; and gold color is added to make the five colors more magnificent. In addition to several newly added colors, Kangxi's five colors have a strong contrast in hue, and the contrast between red and green is clear. It can be divided into different color levels. Some of them use green color more, some use red color, and some ink color. Some of them are mainly gold colored, so they have formed many different styles and changed a lot.

青花五彩瓷器烧造工艺复杂,先于坯上用青花料描绘出一定的纹样,入窑烧成。再以红、黄、绿、紫、赭等色彩描绘到已烧成瓷器上,最后再入窑以700度低温烧造而成。五彩瓷并不是指一定要有五种彩,可以根据文饰的需要增减,釉下青花是“五彩”之一彩。青花五彩瓷在明嘉靖、万历时期烧造极盛,画面粗旷,色彩艳丽,器形风格各异。这一特点乾隆时首先出现后,一直延用到晚清。青花五彩八仙人物故事瓶的纹饰一般是“大内”送来的图样,主题纹饰按不同时节都有严格规定。除以粉彩绘画为主,还常加绘料彩、金彩或黑彩,或与青花、五彩、斗彩并施于一器,这种在一件器物上施多种彩或同时以各种彩绘工艺制作,可说是集多种陶瓷工艺成就于一身,充分反映了制瓷工艺的精湛。

The firing process of blue and white multicolored porcelain is complex. First, the blue and white materials are used to draw a certain pattern on the body, and then it is fired into the kiln. Then red, yellow, green, purple, ochre and other colors painted on the fired porcelain, and finally into the kiln at 700 degrees low temperature. Multicolored porcelain does not mean that there must be five colors, which can be increased or decreased according to the needs of decoration. Underglaze blue and white is one of the "five colors". Blue and white multicolored porcelain was very popular in the Jiajing and Wanli periods of the Ming Dynasty. The pictures were rough, the colors were gorgeous, and the shapes and styles were different. This feature first appeared in the Qianlong period, and it has been used in the late Qing Dynasty. The pattern of the blue and white colorful eight immortals character story bottle is usually the pattern sent by "Da Nei", and the theme decoration is strictly regulated according to different seasons. In addition to pastel painting, it often adds painting material color, gold color or black color,

or applies it together with blue and white, five colors and fighting colors. This kind of painting on an object or making it with various color painting techniques can be said to be a combination of various ceramic techniques, which fully reflects the exquisite porcelain making technology.

此五彩八仙人物瓶是叶先生收藏的珍品,清代五彩的成就是多方面的,此人物八仙瓶瓷料精细,拉胚修还端正细微,一丝不苟,胚体接口不留痕迹,这一点和明代的不同,同时,瓷胎是经过精心修坯的,但造型气势不失,仍留有古拙、凝重、质朴的感觉。

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